Atomistry » Fluorine
Atomistry »
  Fluorine »
    Isotopes »
    Energy »
    Production »
    Application »
    PDB 16pk-1bw7 »
    PDB 1bwf-1dvy »
    PDB 1dvz-1fk9 »
    PDB 1fko-1h1d »
    PDB 1h2j-1j97 »
    PDB 1jdj-1mkd »
    PDB 1mmd-1o5f »
    PDB 1o5g-1q6m »
    PDB 1q6n-1rrx »
    PDB 1rw8-1uda »
    PDB 1udb-1w5y »
    PDB 1w6j-1xz1 »
    PDB 1xz3-1zzr »
    PDB 2a4z-2baq »
    PDB 2bcj-2dux »
    PDB 2duz-2fq6 »
    PDB 2fq9-2gtm »
    PDB 2gtn-2ihj »
    PDB 2ihk-2jxr »
    PDB 2k1q-2ogz »
    PDB 2oh4-2pdk »
    PDB 2pdl-2q94 »
    PDB 2q9p-2rbe »
    PDB 2rfn-2vfz »
    PDB 2vh0-2wbk »
    PDB 2weg-2x2f »
    PDB 2x2n-2y1w »
    PDB 2y1x-2z5z »
    PDB 2z78-3az8 »
    PDB 3b0q-3cct »
    PDB 3ccw-3d39 »
    PDB 3d3e-3du8 »
    PDB 3dv3-3ev4 »
    PDB 3ewh-3flq »
    PDB 3fls-3g70 »
    PDB 3g72-3gwv »
    PDB 3gww-3hkw »
    PDB 3hky-3ig6 »
    PDB 3igu-3jx2 »
    PDB 3jx3-3kql »
    PDB 3kqn-3l8s »
    PDB 3l8v-3lxp »
    PDB 3lz3-3n0n »
    PDB 3n2m-3nly »
    PDB 3nlz-3og7 »
    PDB 3ohh-3oyj »
    PDB 3oyl-3pr2 »
    PDB 3ptm-3qri »
    PDB 3qrj-3rgf »
    PDB 3rjc-3s9y »
    PDB 3sb0-3sym »
    PDB 3syn-3u2o »
    PDB 3u5k-3uxm »
    PDB 3uyt-3vrb »
    PDB 3vrs-3wyk »
    PDB 3wyl-460d »
    PDB 461d-4azy »
    PDB 4b00-4bjk »
    PDB 4bkz-4c62 »
    PDB 4c6l-4cqj »
    PDB 4csj-4dbq »
    PDB 4dbu-4e28 »
    PDB 4e3n-4f9m »
    PDB 4f9w-4fvx »
    PDB 4fxq-4goa »
    PDB 4gpb-4hw7 »
    PDB 4hxn-4ijh »
    PDB 4iju-4j0t »
    PDB 4j0v-4jps »
    PDB 4jq2-4kbi »
    PDB 4kbk-4l3l »
    PDB 4l3o-4luv »
    PDB 4lvt-4mm8 »
    PDB 4mm9-4ncg »
    PDB 4ncj-4o16 »
    PDB 4o28-4olh »
    PDB 4olm-4pa0 »
    PDB 4pb2-4q0d »
    PDB 4q0e-4qrc »
    PDB 4qte-4rv6 »
    PDB 4rx0-4u7z »
    PDB 4u80-4uwf »
    PDB 4uwg-4whq »
    PDB 4whr-4x7i »
    PDB 4x7j-4xxs »
    PDB 4xyf-4ymo »
    PDB 4ymq-4zg9 »
    PDB 4zga-4zzi »
    PDB 4zzj-5ah8 »
    PDB 5aik-5avy »
    PDB 5avz-5btd »
    PDB 5btf-5cgq »
    PDB 5ci0-5dde »
    PDB 5ddf-5dy7 »
    PDB 5dz3-5ese »
    PDB 5esf-5fct »
    PDB 5fd2-5g3j »
    PDB 5g48-5he1 »
    PDB 5he2-5hti »
    PDB 5hu1-5iev »
    PDB 5ifd-5j7p »
    PDB 5j82-5jvz »
    PDB 5jw1-5kmn »
    PDB 5knj-5laz »
    PDB 5lca-5lyy »
    PDB 5lz4-5mrs »
    PDB 5msa-5nge »
    PDB 5njh-5o6e »
    PDB 5o6h-5okd »
    PDB 5olv-5p91 »
    PDB 5p92-5po9 »
    PDB 5pzk-5qby »
    PDB 5qbz-5qoq »
    PDB 5qor-5qtp »
    PDB 5qtq-5rag »
    PDB 5rah-5rm4 »
    PDB 5rm9-5rz5 »
    PDB 5rz6-5swt »
    PDB 5sxa-5tl8 »
    PDB 5tlf-5u1y »
    PDB 5u2t-5uos »
    PDB 5uoz-5v57 »
    PDB 5v5e-5vo4 »
    PDB 5voe-5w4w »
    PDB 5w58-5wkc »
    PDB 5wl0-5xmq »
    PDB 5xmr-5yg1 »
    PDB 5yg2-6a01 »
    PDB 6a0b-6awn »
    PDB 6awp-6b9f »
    PDB 6b9l-6bqk »
    PDB 6bqo-6ccs »
    PDB 6ccy-6cxz »
    PDB 6cy0-6da4 »
    PDB 6dat-6dvo »
    PDB 6dw5-6eda »
    PDB 6edl-6evh »
    PDB 6ew7-6fo6 »
    PDB 6fqj-6g9u »
    PDB 6gbt-6gzm »
    PDB 6h1h-6hey »
    PDB 6hez-6hp9 »
    PDB 6hpu-6j21 »
    PDB 6j3b-6k1p »
    PDB 6k30-6l3g »
    PDB 6l88-6m11 »
    PDB 6m13-6mvp »
    PDB 6mvq-6nfz »
    PDB 6ng0-6nh7 »
    PDB 6nh8-6nze »
    PDB 6nzf-6ogq »
    PDB 6ogr-6or7 »
    PDB 6os8-6p9r »
    PDB 6pc5-6pka »
    PDB 6pkc-6qas »
    PDB 6qba-6qlp »
    PDB 6qlq-6ra5 »
    PDB 6ra7-6rs3 »
    PDB 6rs5-6s4f »
    PDB 6s4t-6t4g »
    PDB 6t4i-6tgl »
    PDB 6thw-6u6a »
    PDB 6u6c-6uuo »
    PDB 6uv1-6v9l »
    PDB 6v9m-6vny »
    PDB 6vpl-6w5x »
    PDB 6w65-6wqe »
    PDB 6wqn-6xdm »
    PDB 6xe3-6xuq »
    PDB 6xv1-6ydj »
    PDB 6yea-6ysk »
    PDB 6ysn-6zde »
    PDB 6zdi-7a15 »
    PDB 7a16-7auz »
    PDB 7avs-7b6i »
    PDB 7b7s-7c7o »
    PDB 7c7q-7d5l »
    PDB 7d5u-7efl »
    PDB 7efm-7jpk »
    PDB 7jpl-7k15 »
    PDB 7k1d-7kko »
    PDB 7kle-7kya »
    PDB 7kyb-7lad »
    PDB 7lae-7m03 »
    PDB 7m04-7mig »
    PDB 7mii-7nbw »
    PDB 7ndv-7o72 »
    PDB 7o73-7r9p »
    PDB 7r9t-7rt3 »
    PDB 7rt4-7w49 »

Element Fluorine, F, Halogene

About Fluorine

To the group of halogen elements there must also be added the element fluorine, which differs in its properties more widely from the other three than these from one another. It exhibits, however, still fewer relationships with the rest of the elements, and is, therefore, most suitably classed along with the halogens.

Fluorine has the combining weight 19, which is smaller than that of the other halogens. The relation which is found here, that the element with the smallest combining weight shows less similarity to the related elements than the elements of higher combining weight to one another, is repeatedly found. Reference will, therefore, be made to this again on other occasions.

Fluorine is not found free in nature any more than the other halogens. To a still higher degree than these, it has the tendency to combine with other elements. This property is so marked that until a few years ago it was quite unknown in the free state.

Compounds of fluorine are fairly widely distributed in nature. It occurs in small quantity in many rocks, and its calcium compound, fluorspar, is a very abundant mineral. The total amount of fluorine, however, in the earth's crust accessible to us is considerably less than that of chlorine.

Fluorine History

Fluorine in the form of fluorspar also called fluorite CaF2, was described in the end of 15th century. Karl Wilhelm Scheele would experiment with hydrofluoric acid, easily obtained by treating calcium fluoride (fluorspar) with concentrated sulfuric acid. In 1886, elemental fluorine was isolated by Henri Moissan by electrolysis of liquid anhydrous mixture of hydrogen fluoride with small amount of potassium fluoride.

In Russian and some other languages fluorine is called "phthoros". This name, derived from Greek φθορος (disrupting, wrecking, decay), was proposed by Andre Ampere in 1810. The English fluorine comes from Latin fluere, meaning "to flow", and the name which reflects the early use of fluorite CaF2 as a flux, to lessen the temperature of ore melting and to increase its fluidity.

The fluorine chemistry had been developed since 1930-s, especially during the World War 2 and after it in connection with growing demands of nuclear industry and rocket technology.

Fluorine Occurrence

The average crustal abundance (clarke) of fluorine is 6.25x10-2 mass %. In acid igneous rocks (granites) it reaches 8x10-2 %, in basic igneous rocks (example basalt) it equals 3.7x10-2 %, and in ultrabasic - 1x10-2 %. Fluorite is abundant in volcanic rocks and thermal waters. The most important compounds are fluorite, cryolite and topaz. In total 86 fluorine-containing minerals are known. Fluorine compounds are also found in apatites, phosphorites etc. At the same time fluorite is very important biogenic element. The main sources which provide biosphere with fluorine are volcano eruptions.

Average content of fluorine in soil is 0.02%.

Each litre of sea water contains 0.3 mg of fluorine, and 20 times of that amount is found in oyster shells. Millions of tons of fluorides are found in coral reefs. Crustal abundance of fluorite is in average 200 times of those in living organisms.

Fluorine is a permanent trace constituent of living organisms. Significant quantities of it may be found as inorganic compounds in bones and, especially, in teeth. Sea creatures' bones are enriched with fluorine. Drinking water is the main source of fluorine in human and animals bodies. The optimal amount in water is 1-1.5 mg/l. Lack of fluorine in human body leads to teeth decay (caries). Dental fluorosis occurs because of the excessive intake of fluorine. High concentrations of fluorine ions are dangerous because of their ability to inhibit enzymatic reactions and to bind some biologically important elements, such as phosphorus, calciumalcium, magnesium, etc., creating their imbalance in organism. Organic fluorine compounds are found only in some plants, for instance, in South African Dichapetalum cymosum. The main organic compounds are fluoroacetic acid derivatives, very toxic for other plants as well as for animals.

The exploration of biological role of fluorine is still incomplete. The importance of fluorine metabolism in creation of bone tissue and teeth is confirmed. The necessity of this element for plants is not proved.


Last articles

Zn in 7VD8
Zn in 7V1R
Zn in 7V1Q
Zn in 7VPF
Zn in 7T85
Zn in 7T5F
Zn in 7NF9
Zn in 7M4M
Zn in 7M4O
Zn in 7M4N
© Copyright 2008-2020 by
Home   |    Site Map   |    Copyright   |    Contact us   |    Privacy